Wednesday, December 22, 2021

Notice to all residents regarding wildfire mitigation work

This notice was sent out to some residents via email.

To All Residents of Lac Le Jeune
Re: Lac le Jeune Ski Hill Wildfire Mitigation Works

As many of you are aware, harvesting equipment has been moved to the ski hill area in the past week and you may be wondering what is going on. The owners of the ski hill and Lac le Jeune Resort have put together a plan to reduce the risk of wildfire to both their private lands and the community of Lac le Jeune as a whole. After the recent wildfire season and the two biggest fire years in 2017 and 2018 in BC’s history, this is a welcome development. Forests within the ski hill lands and adjacent Crown lands are considered to have some of the highest wildfire hazards in the Kamloops region due to the very high, natural densities of pine with approximately 10-20% of the pine infested with mountain pine beetle in 2006 and 2007 which is now dead and dry. This dead timber is now falling out and contributing to significant surface fuel loading that is the key ingredient to intense and fast moving wildfires.  

The first phase of this plan is to strategically harvest timber from the area that will remove the majority of the fuel. The plan is not to clear cut the whole area but to cut patches and strips and to leave enough timber to maintain some of the aesthetics of the area. The stream that drains north to the small lake on the west side of the ski hill will also have a significant no-harvest buffer to protect this feature.  

The second phase will consist of machine raking and piling residual fuels after the harvesting is complete as well as spacing and pruning other sites where the timber is too small to be harvested. This work may start in conjunction with the harvesting, depending on snow levels, and will continue next summer and fall and to be completed prior to next winter.

All residents are asked to refrain from entering or using these private lands while harvesting activities are ongoing. Operations involving heavy equipment are inherently dangerous and you will put yourself at severe risk by being in proximity of the equipment. Information will be posted at the main entrance and other signage will be posted at all known access locations/trails. Please see attached map.
Work is scheduled to begin Dec 14, 2021 and will run to at least Dec 24, 2021 and possibly longer.  A notice will be sent out informing residents when operations are complete.

Thank you for your cooperation. 




Saturday, October 23, 2021

Minutes of the Lac Le Jeune Conservation Association AGM

 Minutes of the Lac Le Jeune Conservation Association 

Annual General Meeting 

September 26, 2021

Lac Le Jeune Provincial Park Day area

Meeting Called to Order 10:20, by Cindy Swain, President

Adoption of minutes from the 2019 AGM 

(Note: Due to COVID provincial health orders there was no meeting held in 2020) 

1st Hugh Burton, 2nd Bruce Mitchell, passed unanimously

Treasurer’s report

 There was a questions about whether our BCLSS membership was paid this year, Cindy to follow up with Leyla, Treasurer. 

1st Jim Phillips, 2nd Allan Schock, passed unanimously.

TNRD area J representative - Ronaye Elliot

Ronaye updated the group on what has been happening in area J over the past year. It has been difficult for local groups to fund raise due to COVID restrictions. 2021 forest fires affected many areas throughout the TNRD. There is not much funding available for LLJ for fire prevention as we are not a municipality and there is no firehall. TNRD provided funding through the Community Works Funding (previously GAS Tax Fund) to finish lighting at Stake Lake trails.  A $1,500 cheque was presented to LLJCA to help continue the Lake Study Project. The attendees thanks Ronaye for the generous donation. Ronaye plans to retire from her position and does not expect to run in the next election. Cindy (president), presented Ronaye with a gift of our appreciation for her support over the years. 

Senior Wildfire Officer Prevention, Kamloops Fire Centre – Jennifer Young


John Collavin & Justin Waito discussed our firesmart options. John is our point of contact for Firesmart queries. We have 2 avenues of funding:

1)    Community resiliency investment

2)    Funding to firesmart homes 

Funding to firesmart homes needs to be directed through TNRD. 

Individual homeowners can apply for a 50% rebate to firesmart their homes. Owners can do to be more immediately, e.g. move wood piles, prune trees, and remove flammable materials from the house. 

 Jason Tomlan & Jamie Viera look after fire departments and serve as services coordinator.

They commented that parks branch and the TNRD will help with fire prevention on crown land and the park. However, homeowners need to handle the properties. When Lac Le Jeune area is at risk, people all around province will help out with structures through/under the program. The biggest issue is knowing where to invest the money. The biggest risk for Lac Le Jeune is coming from the south and southwest – think direction for mitigation. 

The TNRD is the first step for funding since we are not a municipality. Then the TNRD applies for funding on our behalf. To fight forest fires we need money to fund time, training, and experience. Since we need resources toward forest fires the resources for other fires would be depleted henceforth there is a liability there. Mitigation like roof top sprinklers helps more with bringing the ambient temperature down rather than protecting the roof. 

If Lac Le Jeune becomes a fire smart community, we can get a decrease in insurance. It also allows home owners insurance to include water damage from fighting fires. BC Parks is becoming more active in managing the land for forest fires

Fire Mitigation - Clay Govett

Clay reported on the current projects in our community.

The new owners of the ski hill have been working on their own fire plan. 

Treatment of a large plot of crown land is being funded, however we will still need to apply to get to fire smart funding for our local community. The Coquihalla Highway is a big ignition source with vehicle fires. 

We will gather a committee to work toward becoming a firesmart community. Bruce Mitchell has experience in this work from his time at Sun Peaks. Collen Kennedy and Clay Govett will participate in this project.

Lake Monitoring - Hugh Burton 

Water monitoring was started in 2012. About 14 volunteers have participated in the last 4 years. Would like to continue the study. Foster Wynne has been highly involved in the project. Hugh indicated he would like to step downs as lead. Hugh is concerned about the continued build up of algae, which will be damaging the fish, and there is potential for winter kill. The prob cable is broken which will cost $1500-1800. 

Going forward, water sampling once per month will be sufficient. Looking for volunteers. Colleen Kennedy recommended a mailing list to facilitate communication among the volunteers. 

Clean Drain Dry - Cindy Swain 

We have a partnership with clean drain dry. The main purpose is to educate residents and visitors to clean boats, kayaks, paddle boards, etc when going from lake to lake to avoid contamination. 


A representative was unable to attend but sent a request for residents to ensure house numbers are visible to assist emergency services. 

Other Business

The Wilderness Resort owner would like the facility to be more a part of the community and would like residents to know it is possible to rent space for meetings, yoga, etc. 

The local firesmart representative is offering to present about available projects – via Zoom or in person.

There was a free draw for a bird feeder and free swap for those attending the meeting. 

Meeting was adjourned at 12:10.

Friday, October 22, 2021

Overlander Ski Club - Early Bird Registration

Cross Country Skiing

You have until November 15, 2021 to register for a pass that includes unlimited ski and snowshoe access for the Overlander Ski Club 2021-2022 season. 

Wednesday, October 13, 2021

Citizens on Patrol Information Session

Saturday, October 16th from 10am to 2pm, the Logan Lake Citizens On Patrol will have an info booth set up at the Recreation Centre along with other volunteer groups. Please let those know in Lac Le Jeune, we continue to look for more volunteers. 

Cpl. Jarett Duncan

NCO i/c Logan Lake RCMP Detachment

2 Galena AvenuePO Box 160 V0K1W0 

Friday, September 24, 2021


Lac Le Jeune Conservation Association

Annual General Meeting

September 26, 2021



  1. Adoption of minutes from the 2019 AGM
  2. Treasurer's report – Cynthia Swain
  3. TNRD area J representative – Ronaye Elliot
  4. Jennifer Young – Senior Wildfire Officer Prevention, Kamloops Fire Centre
  5. Jon Collavini/Justin Waito – FireSmart
  6. Clay Govett - Fire Mitigation
  7. Lake Monitoring – Hugh Burton and Foster Wynne
  8. Clean Drain Dry update
  9. RCMP update
  10. Wilderness Resort neighbourhood opportunities
  11. Other Business
  12. Draw

COVID Safety: Lac Le Jeune Conservation Association AGM

The AGM is considered an inside event. Entry is first-come, first-served up to a maximum of 50 people. 

While we are not checking for proof of vaccination because of the event size, please do not attend unless you have received two vaccinations. We are working to keep this gathering as safe as possible. We take good notes and post them publicly should you wish to rely on that instead of attending in person. 

All participants must sign in. Bring your own pen to use. Contact information (name and phone number) of all attendees will be retained for at least 30 days. 

Practice social distancing by keeping two meters (six feet) away from one another. Do not gather to socialise inside the venue. 

Wear a mask.

Seating is at picnic tables and will be limited. Bring a chair if you prefer not to stand. Once inside the venue remain in place unless you are invited to speak at the front table. 

There will be limited photocopies of the agenda, and minutes from the 2019 meeting, as well as educational materials. We make every effort to publish all items distributed at the AGM on the Lac Le Jeune website.

There is no running water at the site. Hand sanitizer will be available at the check in table and where beverages are served.

Do not attend the meeting if you:
  • Have travelled outside Canada within the last 14 days
  • Have been identified by Public Health as a close contact of someone with COVID-19
  • Have been told to isolate by Public Health
  • Are displaying any of the following symptoms
    • Fever or chills
    • Cough
    • Loss of sense of smell or taste
    • Difficulty breathing
    • Sore throat
    • Loss of appetite
    • Extreme fatigue or tiredness
    • Headache
    • Body aches
    • Nausea or vomiting
    • Diarrhea


Wednesday, September 22, 2021

BCLSS Loonie News - August 2021

BCLSS Newsletter

August 2021 

*reposted with permission*

Lake Life: What is a Seiche?

A seiche is a standing wave oscillating in a body of water, like the water that sloshes back and forth in a bathtub or cup of water when disturbed. They typically occur in enclosed waterbodies such as lakes, reservoirs, or even swimming pools. These waves can be surface waves or internal waves. 

What causes a seiche?
They are typically caused by strong winds and rapid changes in atmospheric pressure that push water from one end of a water body to the other. After the wind event, the water rebounds to the other side of the enclosed area and continues to oscillate back and forth for hours or even days, depending on the size of the lake. 

Seiches may be noticed under ordinary water conditions as a result of periodic changes in water level or underwater currents associated with the oscillating movement. At some locations and times, these sea-level oscillations and currents may produce hazardous or even destructive conditions. Internal waves form that can be as high as 10 to 30 meters, all unseen from the lake surface. 

Seiche waves generate currents and turbulence that rhythmically flow back and forth. These currents can cause bottom water to come to the surface, and can also mobilize lake sediments and carry them into the water.

To learn more about seiches, watch the video from Larratt Aquatic Consulting Ltd. 

National Ocean Service, NOAA, What is a seiche? 3 March 2021

Stevens, C. L., & Lawrence, G. A. (1997). Estimation of wind-forced internal seiche amplitudes in lakes and reservoirs, with data from British Columbia, Canada. Aquatic Sciences, 59(2), 115-134. 

Members Needed for the BCLSS AGM

We still need more members to register for the Annual General Meeting!  In order for us to reach quorum at the AGM, we require a minimum of 17 members in good standing. The BCLSS AGM will be held via Zoom on Wednesday, September 29th from 12 pm – 1 pm PDT. Please register hereAn agenda and AGM package will be emailed to you upon registration.

If you have any questions, please contact us.

Call for Secchi Dip-In Data


Did you participate in Secchi Dip-In this year? If so, please submit your completed forms on our website or send to by September 30th, 2021. If you took Secchi readings as part of the BC Lake Stewardship and Monitoring Program during the month of July, you can use that data to participate in the Secchi Dip-In, just fill out this form and submit. The Secchi Dip-In provides a snapshot of lake water quality throughout the province as well as the rest of the world. Scientists and volunteers can get a sense of how transparency varies according to water type, regional geology, and land use. Thank you to those who have already sent in their forms! So far we have received data from over 30 lakes across BC. 

BCLSS Q & A Session

Are you interested in learning more about the BCLSS and how we can help protect your local lake? Do you have questions about lake water quality and ecology? Would you like to know more about our programs and how you can participate?

Join our Q and A Session on Wednesday, October 13th at 12 pm (PDT) to have your questions answered!

Register here:

Grant Applications

Habitat Conservation Trust Foundation Stewardship Grants
HCTF recognizes the importance of environmental stewardship and invests in projects that create stewards. Stewards include individuals, practitioners, and community organizations who take responsibility for promoting, monitoring, conserving, and restoring ecosystems to ultimately result in enduring conservation outcomes for fish and wildlife and their habitats. HCTF prefers stewardship projects that create stewards through community-based, hands on engagement programs, including Citizen Science. Stewardship projects may include some on-the-ground components such as habitat restoration. Each year, HCTF provides approximately $600,000 in Stewardship Grants. There is no upper limit on funding requests but there is a 5-year limit to project funding. Stewardship Grant budgets typically range from $10,000 to over $80,000 annually, with an average grant of approximately $30,000. To learn more about this funding opportunity, visit the HCTF website

BC Conservation & Biodiversity Awards
This initiative is designed to support work to preserve our province’s pristine natural wilderness. Every year grants will be awarded of $10,000 to $50,000 to organizations and ideas making the greatest positive impact on the future of B.C. in these areas:
- Land and ocean-based initiatives
- Clean air and water initiatives
- Climate change initiatives
Academic and science-based studies targeting the environment and preservation of wilderness and biodiversity award applications are accepted throughout the calendar year to December 31, with the annual award winners then chosen by the Selection Committee and announced on March 1st of the following year. To learn more and apply for funding, click here

Announcements and Reminders

ALMS 2021 Fall Webinar Series
This year ALMS is hosting a webinar series to learn from experts from across North America on various lake related topics! This series will showcase presentations every Friday morning from September 10th - October 1st. Registration can be achieved through EventBrite. To view the webinar agenda and watch recordings of past webinars, visit the ALMS website here

CALMS 2021: 36th Annual Symposium 
The California Lake Management Society will be hosting their annual conference on Zoom from Oct 4th to Oct 7th. Talks will begin at 12:00 and 12:30 daily. Presenters, topics and Zoom links will be posted here as they become available. To participate in the 2021 conference, click here to register

2021 Go Fish BC Photo Contest
The annual photo contest hosted by Freshwater Fisheries Society of BC is on again! Share your photos of fishing in B.C. and go in the running to win cash prizes and a weekly prize pack. 
1. Luck on the Lake – for photos of anglers in action on lakes in B.C. 
2. Fishing Buddies – for photos of your fishing buddy in action, whether it be a family member, friend, or pet
3. First Catch – for photos of a first catch - this can be first fish ever caught, first of a particular species caught, or first fish of the season. 

For each category, the following cash prizes will be awarded:
1st Prize: $300
2nd Prize: $150
3rd Prize: $75
To learn more and submit photos, click here! Deadline to submit photos is October 31st, 2021. 

S’amunu Make a Difference Day 
Please join the WildWings Nature & Art Festival community volunteers for a community cleanup of the S’amunu watershed streams. The Somenos Marsh Wildlife Society recently completed assessing the condition of the S’amunu/Somenos watershed streams and discovered that the most pressing issue is the amount of garbage in these streams and riparian corridors. The 2nd annual S’amunu Make a Difference Day is the day teams of volunteers, guided by Somenos Marsh Wildlife Society staff, clean up the mess left by others. Last year over 600kgs of garbage was removed. The SMWS hopes to double this effort this year. To register, visit their website here

Stewardship Centre for BC Green Shores Survey
Take the quick survey organized by the Stewardship Centre for BC and TransCoastal Adaptations #GreenShores and nature-based solutions for shoreline management. Visit this link to complete the survey and leave your email to be entered into a draw for a chance to win a compostable Pela Case for your phone. This survey runs all through September. A winner will be announced on October 1st! 

NSWA Watershed Wednesdays
Join the North Saskatchewan Watershed Alliance for Watershed Wednesdays this fall - an online speaker series the first Wednesday of each month (noon to 1 pm) on a variety of watershed topics including wetlands, whirling disease, and water quality. To register, click here

Watersheds Canada September Webinars
Shoreline Assessment Webinar: Sept 22. Have you ever wondered how to naturalize your shoreline? What should you and your family be looking for on your property that might impact water quality and wildlife habitat availability? Chloe and Monica from Watersheds Canada will walk you through a property assessment to show you what our staff look for on a property that can help protect freshwater health and provide crucial habitat for wildlife. Click here to register.

Invasive Species in Your Watershed: Sept 29. This webinar will touch on what makes a species invasive, pathways of spread, call to actions, and how to report sightings of invasive species. Click here to register

News and Information

Why the North Saskatchewan River has gone from brown to blue

5 mistakes you could be making with your cottage septic system

Lots of beer cans and sunglasses — cleaning up B.C. lakes is a labour of love for these divers

Switch-to-cold laundry campaign set for launch in Metro Vancouver to fight microplastics pollution

The World's Two Oldest Common Loons Are a Couple—and Amazing Parents

6 tiny turtles released into mud of Grindstone Creek — the last from 59 nests rescued this year

Nitrate levels climbing in P.E.I. rivers

Should you be removing the weeds from your lake?

Australian bush fires belched out immense quantity of carbon

EcoSuperior rain garden in Thunder Bay to help reduce water flowing to city storm sewer

‘A lot of salmon died’: Ahousaht Guardians look to watershed restoration amid B.C.’s dangerously dry summer
Not a member of the BCLSS yet?
Please consider joining our network of lake stewards! For more information on the benefits of membership, please visit our 
Thank you to LUSH for funding the
BC Lake Stewardship Engagement Initiative
The BCLSS gratefully acknowledges the financial support of the Government of British Columbia through the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change Strategy.

Tuesday, September 21, 2021

Lac Le Jeune Conservation Association

Thinking of joining? Not sure what we do?

The Lac Le Jeune Conservation Association, as a non profit society, allows us to:

  • Obtain Federal, Provincial and TNRD funding for initiatives, such as fire mitigation, water monitoring, conservation initiatives in our beautiful area.
  • Build relationships with Ministry of Environment, Fisheries, Forestry, Parks, Transportation and Highways, RCMP, TNRD and other agencies.
  • Participate in a Water Monitoring Project in conjunction with Ministry of Environment to help protect our watershed.
  • Participate in the Invasive Species Program in conjunction with the TNRD.
  • Build relationships with local groups and businesses working on projects in our area.
  • Keep up-to-date with conservation issues that affect our community.
  • Work together to address emerging issues and to be proactive in protecting our environment.

Lac Le Jeune Conservation AGM 

Sunday, September 26 at 10:00am 

Day shelter, LLJ Provincial Park

 Hope to see you there!

Sunday, September 19, 2021

Drum for the Children - Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc

 Tk̓emlúps te Secwépemc (Kamloops Indian Band)


Join Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc on September 30 at 2:15 pm Pacific to drum and sing for the missing children of Indian Residential Schools.

September 17, 2021, Kamloops – Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc calls on people worldwide to drum simultaneously for the missing children of Indian Residential Schools for the first Canadian National Day of Truth and Reconciliation, this September 30 at 2:15 pm Pacific time.

After a global outpouring of interest and support for the missing children from the Kamloops Indian Residential School, Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc is offering a way for people to connect, support and ground into the importance of this very first Canadian National Day of Truth and ReconciliationTk’emlúps te Secwépemc is calling upon people around the world to gather – safely – to drum and sing with us for the missing children of Indian Residential Schools.

It’s time to honour the children, and the unrelenting spirit of these Ancestors. It’s time to drum for the healing of the Indian Residential Schools Survivors who carried the burden of knowing where the children were buried, and to drum for the healing of the families and communities whose children did not come home,” stated Kukpi7 Rosanne Casimir.

Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc is urging everyone to learn the Secwepemc Honour Song so that all who join in may do so in unity with drumbeat and voice. The song is available through Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc social media channels as well as on the dedicated web page

We invite you to share this song, to teach it and record it in schools, workplaces, and living roomsTk’emlúps te Secwépemc is calling upon the world to help us shine a light on truth, the pursuit of justice and peace, as well as healing for all affected by these beloved missing children. The confirmation of the missing children has impacted people locally, regionally, nationally and even globally. Secwepemc Elders have said that it is the children that are going to bring us together. We want to make the world a better place for children everywhere and give them hope and assurances, that every child matters,” declared Kukpi7 Rosanne Casimir.

Contact: Racelle Kooy Email:

Access to B-roll of Kukpi7 Rosanne Casimir drumming in front of the Kamloops Indian Residential School and of the Secwepemc Honour Song Recording (featuring Secwepemc hand drummers):

Access to additional visual assets of “Every Child Matters Drum” and Tk’emlups te Secwepemc drum being struck (held against a blue sky background) can be downloaded from the dedicated web page:

200-330 Chief Alex Thomas Way, Kamloops BC V2H 1H1 Phone: 250-828-9700 Fax: 250-372-8833 www.tkemlups


Even though we are unable to gather together physically in great numbers due to COVID 19, we want to encourage a sense of unity and engagement so we ask everyone to join in drumming with us at 2:15 Pacific Time . We look forward to bearing witness to people joining us, from Secwepemcúlecw, our homelands, to around the world – connected by an honour song for the children in our care as well as for those laying to rest in other areas.

We chose 2:15 pm Pacific Time because as 215 was the number that made a ripple around the world at the end of May of this year (2021) about the truth of missing children in unmarked graves at the sites of former Indian Residential Schools as it revealed the truth of the historic mistreatment of Indigenous children. The time was chosen as a way to honour those who are currently in Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc caretakership. Since the news about the 215 at Tk’emlúps, more missing children have been confirmed at other Indian Residential School sites in Canada and the United States. At Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc, we know that our work has only just begun.

As this is a worldwide call out for participation, it is challenging to coordinate everyone online at the same so we request that you film yourself, post it on social media and tag us by using the hashtag #DrumForTheChildren

Tk’emlúps te Secwépemc Social Media : Twitter: @Tkemlups
Facebook: @TkemlupsteSecwepemc Instagram: @Tkemlups_te_Secwepemc

Dedicated Web Page:


CanadianNational Day of Truth and Reconciliation, details of the federal legislation (Bill C-5): establish-national-day-for-truth-and-reconciliation.html transition-material-2021/bill-c5-national-day-truth-reconciliation.html

Why is September 30th also know as Orange Shirt Day, the importance of orange as well as the origin of “Every Child Matters:

Sunday, September 12, 2021

Lac Le Jeune Conservation Association Annual Dues

Photo by Mark Olsen on Unsplash

During COVID -19 the Lac Le Jeune Conservation Association was unable to hold an in-person annual general meeting. We are excited to be able to gather together again on September 26th at 10:00 in the Provincial Park. Put that date in the calendar!

Two very enthusiastic and responsible young members of the community will be collecting annual dues at the AGM. New members can help make this job easier by first printing and completing the membership form. Bring it along with the $10 fee to the meeting, pop it in the mail (address on the form), or connect with your area representative

That's right! Only $10 per household! 

All Lac Le Jeune residents are encouraged to join the Conservation Association. In addition to attending to important conservation issues and ensuring that all voices are represented, the Association is the point of contact for emergency preparedness, social events, RCMP liaison, and Citizens on Patrol.  

Returning members only need to complete the membership form if there are any changes to your contact information. 

Please help spread the word about the AGM!

Monday, August 30, 2021

Hold the date: Lac Le Jeune Conservation Association AGM

 Mark your calendars! The Lac Le Jeune Annual General Meeting will be held at the Provincial Park covered picnic area on September 26, 2021, 10:00 - 11:30- AM. An agenda will be posted closer to the date. If you have items please add them to the comments, or get in touch with your area representative.

*Photo of a quilt called "The View From Here" created by Jenny Perry

Thursday, August 26, 2021

BCLSS Loonie News - August 2021

BCLSS Newsletter
August 2021
*Reposted with permission*

The Importance of Measuring Dissolved Oxygen and Temperature in Lakes

Oxygen is essential to nearly all organisms on earth including life in lakes. Given that fish breathe oxygen dissolved in water (referred to as dissolved oxygen or DO), the sport fisheries and healthy aquatic ecosystems that many of us enjoy, are absolutely dependent on water having an adequate supply of DO. Its concentration also has a great effect on the biochemical nature of a lake. Long-term changes in oxygen concentration, especially at the lake bottom, can markedly affect nutrient availability and alter the productivity of the entire lake. As such, oxygen is one of the most important resources influencing lake management and its measurement should be part of any lake sampling program. 

What is Dissolved Oxygen?
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) is the amount of oxygen (O2 ) molecules that are dissolved into the water. The amount of O2 that is dissolved in a lake depends on several factors including the mixing that occurs during the overturn of a lake, the amount of wind action a lake experiences, the temperature of the lake, the number of plants that photosynthesize in the lake, and daily fluctuation patterns. 

The transfer of oxygen from the air to the lake is facilitated by increasing the surface area exposed to the atmosphere. The surface area of a water body in contact with the atmosphere is increased by wind-driven waves and ripples, as well as by forcing water into droplets by splashing over obstacles or forcing through a fountain, for example. 

While O2 transfer to a water body is primarily through the atmosphere, photosynthesis by aquatic plants also plays a role in the amount of DO in a lake. The net effect on DO concentration is usually very small or neutral since comparable amounts of DO are consumed by these same organisms at night through respiration, when photosynthesis is not actively occurring. In addition to the respiration needs of photosynthetic organisms during darkness, oxygen within the system is also consumed through aerobic respiration by other organisms including: aquatic vertebrates and invertebrates, and bacterial and fungal communities involved in degrading dead plants and animals. 

How do DO and temperature change throughout a lake?
Oxygen concentrations and cycling are mainly dependent on the lake thermal stratification patterns which are seasonally variable. Thermal stratification is a physical response to the effect of solar heating to water’s properties of temperature and density. Generally, water density decreases as temperature increases. Warm water is less dense than cold water so it will be found towards the surface and cold water will be found near the bottom of the lake. If this held true for the winter, ice would form on the bottom of lakes. Ice, floats due to the expanded volume of water molecules when in the solid, crystal phase. Because water expands as it freezes, ice is slightly less dense and a bit lighter than water. Therefore, water is most dense at 4°C – not at 0°C when it freezes. 

During the spring and fall, lakes become completely mixed when temperatures are similar top to bottom, and wind energy overcomes the reduced temperature and density differences between surface and bottom waters. Water temperature and density are similar throughout the lake depth and a complete mixing of water, oxygen, and nutrients can occur. This is called turnover.

With the onset of summer, the lake’s vertical oxygen profile will begin to change as the lake warms and separates into layers controlled by temperature and thus water density (Figure 1). The upper layer of water will have contact with atmospheric oxygen and light allowing for diffusion of oxygen into the water and oxygen production by photosynthetic action of rooted aquatic plants and algae. This oxygen will not, however, be available to underlying waters. Waters of the lower layers in the lake have no contact with oxygen during the summer and are too dark to support most photosynthetic plants. The thermocline is found in the middle of the lake and is defined by a temperature change of at least 1°C per vertical meter and marks the transition between the top and bottom layers. This temperature/density gradient can be very sharp and can effectively prevent the mixing of the top and bottom layers. 

Figure 1. Lake stratification in the summer

The depth of the thermocline and overall lake stratification depends on factors including the local climate and the size and depth of a lake. In order to capture changes in the water column, DO and temperature should be measured every 1 meter from the surface to the lake bottom at regular intervals throughout the ice-free portion of the year.  

Why take dissolved oxygen and temperature profiles?
A profile is done by measuring DO and T at regular intervals (e.g., every meter from the lake surface to 1 m above the lake bottom). By developing an understanding of what DO and temperature look like from the surface to the bottom of the lake, more insight can be gained concerning the health of the lake. With climate warming, it is becoming increasingly important to document DO and T profiles for lakes in order to better predict locations and time periods that may experience increased or decreased DO concentrations in relation to changing temperatures. 

How to take DO and temperature profiles?
The best way to measure DO and temperature in a water column is to use an oxygen meter which measures the amount of dissolved oxygen in an aqueous solution and has a built-in thermometer so that temperature can be recorded with every DO reading. There are other methods available to measure DO such as the Winkler method, however, these methods are more cumbersome, time consuming, and more prone to user error, making it challenging to obtain an accurate profile of a lake. DO instruments can be purchased at a reasonable cost and are relatively easy to use by lake stewards, requiring  only a short training session.

When assessing water quality and the health of a lake, dissolved oxygen is one of the most important parameters as it is essential for the survival of aquatic organisms. When oxygen becomes too low, fish and other aquatic organisms become stressed and may die. Nutrient availability and productivity of the entire lake rely on the concentration of DO in a lake, so it is important to monitor for changes in order to implement best management practices. 

By taking profiles of a lake, it may be possible to detect changes to the depth of the thermocline, or changes in the time of lake turnover, which can have marked effects on DO and nutrient cycling. Due to the sensitivity of lakes and lake ecosystems to climate change, it is important that proactive measures be taken to better predict how lakes throughout BC will respond. The more lakes that provide temperature and DO profiles, the more data points there will be for different regions and lake characteristics so that steps can be taken to mitigate impacts or provide information in advance of an extreme shift.  

If you would like to learn more about monitoring dissolved oxygen and temperature changes in your lake, contact the BCLSS for information.

British Columbia Lake Stewardship Society (2021). Chapter Three: An Introduction to Lakes, LakeKeepers Manual 2021 Edition, accessed May 2021. 

Wilson, P. C. (2010). Water Quality Notes: Dissolved Oxygen. Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension (IFAS). University of Florida. EDIS, 2010(2), retrieved May 2021 from

YSI Inc. (2021). Dissolved Oxygen Measurement in Water with Oxygen Meters, retrieved May 2021 from

Volunteer on the BCLSS Board of Directors 

Would you like to work towards preserving and protecting lakes while gaining valuable leadership skills and learning more about environmental non-profits and stewardship groups? If so, volunteering on the BCLSS Board of Directors could be a great opportunity for you. Please see here for more information and requirements. Letters of intent and nominations are due by September 17, 2021. There will be no nominations from the floor at the AGM, which will be held on September 29 from 12 pm - 1 pm PDT via Zoom. Please register for the AGM here.

Call for Secchi Dip-In Data

Did you participate in Secchi Dip-In this year? If so, please submit your completed forms on our website or send to If you took Secchi readings as part of the BC Lake Stewardship and Monitoring Program during the month of July, you can use that data to participate in the Secchi Dip-In, just fill out this form and submit. The Secchi Dip-In provides a snapshot of lake water quality throughout the province as well as the rest of the world. Scientists and volunteers can get a sense of how transparency varies according to water type, regional geology, and land use. Thank you to those who have already sent in their forms! So far we have received data from over 30 lakes across BC.

Lake Blitz Update

The Lake Blitz has been active since the May long weekend, the project kicked off with the launch of the Lake Biodiversity Photo Challenge. Since then, we have met with stewardship groups in Ontario and BC, and have developed Lake Blitz hubs with the regional BC Parks, Wildsight Revelstoke, Bay Area Restoration Council, and the BC Lake Stewardship Society. We currently have 50 active monitoring volunteers who are gathering temperature and photo data on their local lakes. The majority of the participants are from BC and Ontario, although we have lakes being monitored in Yukon, Quebec, and Nova Scotia.

The photo challenge has been a huge success with over 200 photos entered from lakes across Canada. Winners will be announced at the end of August so stay tuned!

Our social media team has been sharing details about the Secchi Dip-In event as well. Even the Friends of Kootenay Lake offered to lend Secchi discs for local stewards to take part. Although there has been no uptake for this offer, it will stand for next year's event as well.

In year 2 of the Lake Blitz, we expect to increase participation by engaging Lake Blitz Hubs earlier, before their capacity is maxed out and more can plan to integrate the Blitz into their summer monitoring programs. We are also lookin forward to developing monitoring kits specific for the Blitz and, if possible, meet the needs of BCLSS citizen science programs.

Submitted by Georgia Peck, Program Coordinator Living Lakes Canada

Announcements and Reminders

Watersheds Canada's Freshwater Stewardship Community
This is a free online space for passionate individuals and community groups to connect, share, and learn more about protecting and enhancing their local freshwater areas. Over 700 individuals across Canada have already signed up for the monthly webinars, education resources, and networking opportunities. Join today!

River Clinic 2021
The Rivershed Society of BC is hosting River Clinic sessions from Aug 15 to Sept 12, 2021. Geared toward university students and early career conservation professionals, River Clinics offer an opportunity to explore career paths, network, and learn about Watershed CPR (Connect, Protect, Restore) from professionals working in this field. Click here for more information!

Call for Abstracts
Valuing Water: Economics, Ecology, & Culture. 41st International Symposium of the North American Lake Management Society. November 15-18, 2021 - Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. NALMS encourages you to submit abstracts for their international symposium. Visit the symposium website,, to view the Call for Abstracts.

Webinar Series: Indigenous-led Water Relationships within the Columbia Basin POSTPONED
Living Lakes Canada is now looking at potentially hosting the event in mid-October. Once new dates are finalized, details will be made available to those who have already registered and on the Living Lakes Canada website. This webinar series has been organized to create space, time and place for a Knowledge Holder and a technician from each of the Ktunaxa, Secwépemc and Okanagan Indigenous Peoples to present on their values, how they relate to water and the future of water in the Columbia Basin. Click here to register and learn more about the series.

The Stewardship Solution to Polystyrene Foam Pollution
The Lake Windermere Ambassadors are taking action against polystyrene foam pollution at Lake Windermere. They have developed an incentive program to connect those who have harmful docks or unnatural shorelines made with unencapsulated polystyrene with some resources to rebuild in a way that is better for everyone who relies on and enjoys Lake Windermere. They are offering a rebate of 50% up to $500 for any individual who takes action to improve their shoreline or water based infrastructures. To get involved by donating or or applying for a rebate, click here

Call for Proposals
The 2022 Joint Aquatic Sciences Meeting (JASM) will be held in Grand Rapids, Michigan, May 14-20, 2022. The JASM Program Committee invites proposals for symposia, pre-conference workshops/professional development courses, and integrated events which support the conference theme: Rapid Changes ~ Collaborative Solutions. Visit the JASM 2022 website to learn more about the Call for Proposals. 

News and Information

Canadian Lakes Loon Survey: New Report Helps Explain Mysterious Declines

"Forever chemicals" in make-up showing up in lakes and drinking water.

Drought: Impact of Freshwater Fish, and How Anglers Can Help

Teaching citizen scientists to hunt for ‘canary in the coal mine’ in Alberta’s rivers

Connecting people to connect wildlife 

Video shows salmon injured by unlivable water temperatures after heatwave 

Water conservation is everyone's responsibility 

Good news: Some climate change impacts are 'reversible.' Here's what that means

From Delta to Hope, 85% of B.C.’s lower Fraser salmon habitat no longer accessible to declining fish populations

The controversy over the term 'citizen science'

Protecting Canada's Freshwater

‘It’s pretty dire’: Vancouver Island salmon under threat from climate change-induced droughts
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Thank you to LUSH for funding the
BC Lake Stewardship Engagement Initiative
The BCLSS gratefully acknowledges the financial support of the Government of British Columbia through the Ministry of Environment and Climate Change Strategy.
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